Trachikarpus



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The plant trachycarpus (Trachycarpus) is a representative of the Palm family. This genus includes 9 species that live in East Asian countries. Most often, trachycarpus can be found in China, Japan, and Burma. As an ornamental plant, this palm is found all over the world. Depending on the conditions, trachycarpus can be grown both outdoors and at home. Due to sufficient frost resistance, of the whole variety of palms, it is trachycarpus that most often adorn the Crimean and Caucasian coasts, being used for landscaping.

A distinctive feature of the palm is its high frost resistance, which is important when caring for trachycarpus at home. The plant can safely withstand temperatures as low as -10 degrees. Unfortunately, other representatives of Palmovs are not so winter-hardy. Trachikarpus is often a decoration for greenhouses. If conditions permit, the trachycarpus palm can be safely grown as a houseplant.

Description of trachycarpus

The trachikarpus forms a straight trunk. In the natural environment, its height sometimes reaches 20 m. The outer part of the trunk is covered with fibers left over from old fallen leaves. Domestic specimens usually do not exceed 2.5 m. The foliage has a slightly elongated rounded shape and reaches 60 cm in diameter. The size of the petiole can be up to 75 cm. Each leaf is divided into numerous segments. In some species, their separation occurs to the base of the plate, in others, only up to half. There is a bluish bloom from the inside of the sheet.

During the flowering period, in late spring, a large (up to 1 m) cluster inflorescence is formed on the palm tree, in which there are numerous fragrant yellow flowers, but domestic specimens of trachycarpus do not bloom. Garden or greenhouse specimens can form buds. For pollination of such flowers, you will need two copies of the palm - a male and a female. In this case, after flowering on the trachycarpus, dark bluish fruits are tied, resembling medium-sized grapes.

Trachikarpus is a fan palm.

Brief rules for growing trachycarpus

The table shows brief rules for caring for trachycarpus at home.

Lighting levelHalf shade or diffused light will do.
Content temperatureDuring the period of active growth - 18-25 degrees, in winter about 10-12 degrees.
Watering modeWatering is carried out when the soil dries out by 2-3 cm, the volumes should be small.
Air humidityA higher level is preferable; for this, the trachycarpus leaves are wiped with a damp cloth twice a month. Spraying is not recommended.
The soilLoose soil is suitable for planting, which does not retain water.
Top dressingHeld from April to the end of summer, about once every 3 weeks. A universal composition for palms is suitable, but it is recommended to reduce its dosage by half. During the rest period, the plant is not fertilized.
TransferIn the first years of life, palms are transplanted every spring, adults - 3-5 times less often. Old trachycarpus are not touched, limited to replacing the top layer of soil in the pot.
BloomTrachikarpus is grown as a large plant with decorative foliage.
Dormant periodIt manifests itself weakly, but from late autumn to spring, the palm tree slows down its growth.
ReproductionSeeds forming shoots.
PestsAphids, mealybugs, thrips, leaf-eating insects, scale insects.
DiseasesVarious types of rot.

Caring for trachycarpus at home

Trachikarpus is considered a very undemanding plant, therefore, provided suitable conditions are provided, it does not create problems for the grower at all. With good care, the palm tree will delight with its beauty.

Lighting

Trachikarpus is quite light-requiring, but can adapt to almost any level of illumination, except for abundant direct light and deep shadow. If the pot with the plant is kept on the south side, it should be protected from direct scorching rays, and also periodically ventilated the room. Trachikarpus do not like drafts, so the container with a palm tree should not stand in the way of the air flow.

For uniform and symmetrical development of the crown, once every couple of weeks, the palm should be turned to the light with the other side. In the summer, you can move the tub outside, but this should be done in stages, allowing the plant to get used to changing conditions.

Temperature

In spring and summer, trachycarpus develops well at temperatures around 18-25 degrees. The plant reacts to heat above 25 degrees by slowing growth, as well as by drilling the tips of the foliage. In winter, it is desirable to provide trachycarpus with a cool wintering (about 10-12 degrees), but if necessary, you can leave it in a warm room. If the palm tree spent the summer outdoors, you can leave it in the garden until frost, but specimens growing in pots should not be exposed to subzero temperatures. In addition, the winter hardiness of trachycarpus directly depends on its size. The most persistent are adult specimens with a formed trunk.

Watering

Trachikarpus have good drought tolerance and do not need frequent watering. If the palm tree is constantly in moist soil, this can lead to rotting of its roots. For watering, the soil in the pot should dry out by about 2-3 cm. An exception is made for specimens that are transferred to the street for the summer - there the earth dries out faster, so you can water the bushes a little more often.

It is important that the water does not contain chlorine, therefore, it must be carefully defended or filtered before watering. If the trachycarpus dormant period is cool, the winter irrigation schedule should be adjusted. At this time, they are carried out much less frequently.

Humidity level

Trachikarpus prefers an average level of humidity (about 55%), but it can tolerate dry air quite well. In the summer, a couple of times a month, trachycarpus can be bathed under a warm shower, having previously wrapped the soil with a film. In winter, you can wipe the palm leaves with a soft cloth dipped in water. Spraying such a palm is not recommended. Constant moisture on the leaves can lead to the development of fungal diseases, especially if the room is cool and not bright enough. Instead, to increase the level of humidity, open containers of water are installed next to the palm tree, or humidifiers are turned on.

If traces of water spray appear on the trachycarpus leaves, it can be removed by wiping the leaf with a cloth soaked in a 5% solution of oxalic acid. Then the leaves are washed with warm water and wiped dry. If the foliage is just dusty, you can wipe it with a damp soft cloth once every couple of weeks. Do not use special foliage polishes. They can lead to the development of chlorosis.

The soil

Loose soil is suitable for planting trachycarpus, which does not retain water - the surplus should go away in only a few seconds. The reaction of the substrate can vary from acidic to neutral. You can prepare the planting soil yourself by mixing compost, humus and sod soil and adding to them a part of a baking powder - sand, vermiculite or perlite. Another substrate option includes wet peat, turf and leafy soil, as well as half of the baking powder. Trachikarpus will grow well in universal soil for palm trees. When selecting soil, it is important to avoid elements that impair the drainage properties of the soil. These include fine sand and clay.

Top dressing

For trachycarpus, a universal composition for palms is suitable, containing all the trace elements necessary for a plant. Top dressing is carried out during the period of active development of the bush - from mid-spring to late summer - about once every 3 weeks. In this case, the recommended dosage should be reduced by 2 times.

It is permissible to use nutrient granules, which gradually release the substances necessary for the trachycarpus. In this case, it will be enough to add top dressing to the ground just once a season - in the spring.

Transfer

You will have to transplant the trachycarpus only when necessary, as the palm tree outgrows its pot, and its roots begin to be seen in the drainage holes. Younger specimens need a transplant more often. It is held annually in April. Mature palms can be moved 3-5 times less often. When the trachycarpus becomes too large, it will be inconvenient to transplant it, in addition, the risk of damage to the plant increases. Instead, every spring in a tub with such a palm tree, the top 5 cm of soil is replaced with fresh substrate.

Trachycarpus roots can be easily damaged, so when transplanting, you need to carefully transfer the plant into a new container. The soil lump is preserved by filling only the voids in the pot with fresh soil. Any selected soil must be prepared in advance. Half a month before the transplant, it is disinfected by calcining in an oven or microwave, or spilled with a saturated solution of potassium permanganate.

The new container should not be too large for the old one. An impressive layer of drainage is laid at the bottom of the pot, and then a palm tree is transferred into it along with a soil clod. The remaining places are filled with fresh soil. It is important to ensure that the same depth is maintained. The transplanted trachycarpus is watered and shaded for several days. After that, the plant is not fed for about 1-1.5 months until it depletes the nutrients of the fresh soil.

HOW TO REPLANT A PALM / TRACHYKARPUS / CARE / ROOTS GIANTS :)

Pruning

To maintain a neat and attractive crown, damaged, dried out or leaf blades hanging downwards must be removed. At the same time, more foliage should not be removed from the trachycarpus per year than it forms in return. Do not remove leaves that have turned yellow or changed color to brown. They still continue to feed the plant, so you should wait until they are completely dry before removing.

If lateral shoots are formed on the trachycarpus, they are also removed - new stems will slow down the development of the main shoot. An exception is made for those cases when such a growth is required for the propagation of a palm tree.

Always be careful when trimming foliage or shoots - the trunk must remain intact.

Breeding methods of trachycarpus

Growing from seeds

Plant breeders do not resort to this method of reproduction of trachycarpus so often because of its duration, in addition, the seeds remain viable for only a year, gradually losing their ability to germinate with each month of storage. Fresh seed from January to February 1 pc. placed in cups (0.1 l) filled with seedling soil with the addition of baking powder, and covered with glass or film on top. Such planting dates will allow the sprouts not to experience a lack of light. Previously, the seeds can be kept in water for a couple of days, removing the fleshy layer from them. The water should be changed every day. When planting, the seeds are not buried, but only slightly pressed into the ground.

The shelter is removed every day for ventilation and the moisture of the soil is monitored, if necessary, watering the seedlings little by little. Seed germination lasts from 3 weeks to a couple of months, usually they hatch not very amicably. For full development, they need to be kept in diffused light in a warm (from 20-22 degrees) place. When the seedlings form a leaf about 3 cm long, it can be transplanted into ordinary palm soil. In summer, young trachycarpuses are slightly shaded from the bright sun. With proper care, the seedlings should have up to 5 leaves by the first winter. From the 5-7th leaf blade, split leaves will begin to appear on the palm tree.

Reproduction using shoots

Vegetative reproduction of trachycarpus is often practiced, but for it it is necessary to provide the palm with a certain content. The planting material here will be the basal processes formed in all representatives of this genus. The main condition for the formation of such shoots is high humidity. When the scion grows to 7 cm in thickness, it is separated from the main palm in the area of ​​tapering with a sharp and clean instrument. It is important not to damage the main barrel when separating. After that, all leaves must be removed from the shoot. The section of the cut is treated with a fungicide and a root formation stimulant.

The prepared shoot is planted in a moist substrate, which includes part of the coarse perlite and part of the sand. The roots will most likely form in a shady and warm (about 26-28 degrees or slightly higher) place, subject to constant moderate soil moisture. Strong roots of such a process are formed in six months or a year. After that, it can be transplanted into another container, using soil for palm trees. The care of the seedlings is carried out according to the same principles as for the adult trachycarpus.

The peculiarity of this breeding method is that most of the offspring formed by the palm tree are slightly curved.

Diseases and pests

Diseases

Systematic waterlogging of the trachycarpus can lead to the development of black or gray rot. Excess watering can also cause brown spots on foliage. The best prevention of these problems is considered to be adherence to the soil moistening schedule. If the palm tree is already affected by fungal diseases, a fungicide solution should be used.

Failure to comply with the conditions necessary for trachycarpus can also lead to problems with the plant. A tub with it should not be kept in a too shady place or in the scorching sun, as well as in drafts. To completely dry out the soil lump of the trachycarpus is almost as harmful as to overmoisten it - this leads to a halt in the development of the bush and the death of foliage.

Slow growth of a palm tree can be caused by a lack of nutrients, which can also manifest itself as yellowing of the leaf plates. If a palm tree is fertilized, but its leaves still turn yellow, the cause of the problem may lie in too hard water for irrigation or excessive heat in the room. Yellow or brownish specks on the leaves indicate sunburn.

Why DO THE LEAVES BLACK near the room palm tree ✔️ Caring for the palm tree At Home

Pests

Due to the large and succulent foliage, the trachycarpus sometimes becomes the target of harmful insects. Among them are scale insects, aphids, spider mites and other pests that feed on plant sap. Having found signs of damage, you should determine the type of pest and use special means to combat it. But the treatment with chemical insecticides or acaricides is recommended to be carried out in the air. If scale insects or mealybugs are found on the trachycarpus, they should first be removed from the leaves by hand.

Sometimes pests can enter the house with a purchased plant. Such a palm tree should be kept in quarantine for about 3 weeks, daily inspecting its trunk, foliage, soil, and also a pot from all sides.

Types and varieties of trachycarpus with photos and names

The following types of palms are most often grown at home:

Trachycarpus fortunei

The most common type. Trachycarpus fortunei in the natural environment is capable of reaching 12 meters in height. If you grow such a palm tree at home, its size will not exceed 2.5 m. Its trunk is covered with rough remains of old foliage, giving it a shaggy appearance. The leaf blades are deeply divided and consist of numerous segments. From the outside, the foliage is painted in a rich green color, and from the inside it is covered with a silver coating. If this species grows in a greenhouse, during the flowering period, inflorescences-brushes of fragrant yellow flowers are formed on it. In indoor culture, flowering does not occur.

Interestingly, this species is also used for industrial purposes: the fibers obtained from it make it possible to create strong ropes, mats, and even garments. It is also noteworthy that there are no thorns on the petioles of such a palm.

Trachycarpus two-segment (Trachycarpus geminisectus)

Another species often found in floriculture. Trachycarpus geminisectus reaches 2.5 m in height with a trunk diameter of up to 25 cm. The trunk itself is covered with the remains of old petioles.At the top of such a palm tree there are up to 15 leaf blades in the form of large fans with a dissection to the base of the leaf.

Trachycarpus Wagner (Trachycarpus fortunei Wagnerianus)

This species is especially popular in Asian countries. Trachycarpus fortunei Wagnerianus grows up to 7 m in its natural environment. It has strong dark green leaves that stick to hardish petioles. Due to its structure, such a palm tree resists the wind well and is able to endure cold weather.

Trachycarpus martiana

A heat-loving species that is used to decorate gardens in regions with mild winters. The trunk of Trachycarpus martiana is practically bare. On it, leaf blades are closely located, including about 65 small segments.

Trachycarpus high (Trachycarpus excelsa)

This type of trachycarpus is considered one of the most frost-resistant. As a result, Trachycarpus excelsa is grown in many parts of the world. When planted in open ground, the size of this palm tree can reach 16 m, at home - up to 3 m. The lower half of its trunk has a scaly coating. The foliage is quite tough, with a bluish bloom.

Dwarf trachycarpus (Trachycarpus nanus)

An unusual view, notable for its low height. The dimensions of Trachycarpus nanus reach only 50 cm. This palm tree has a root system that penetrates deep into the soil. The rounded foliage is dissected in the form of a fan and covered with a bluish bloom.


Trachikarpus: growing and care

Trachikarpus - interesting and promising for gardening palm trees, are now widely used for landscaping streets in countries with subtropical and temperate climates, as well as tub and pot plants in cooler climates. Read more about the appearance, features of growth in the wild of various types of trachycarpus on the page Trachikarpus.

Trachycarpus Fortune is the most widespread in culture.(Trachycarpus fortunei), it has long been grown for its durable fibers, which are used to make ropes and ropes, clothes and shoes, mats and other household items. In addition to applied use, trachycarpus has undoubted decorative qualities. This fan palm came to Europe in the middle of the 19th century and began to be grown as a beautiful exotic greenhouse plant.

In nature, Fortune's trachycarpus can reach 10-12 meters in height, but in culture it grows much lower. The trunk is covered with a brown thick coarse coat formed by the remnants of petioles of old leaves. Fanned, deeply divided into many segments, hard leaves, dark green above and with a silvery bloom below, give a special decorative effect. The palm tree willingly blooms with long branchy yellow fragrant clusters even in greenhouses, but at home, flowering occurs extremely rarely, since only young specimens that have not reached the flowering age can be grown here. Flowering is replaced by clusters of bluish-black fruits, resembling bunches of small grapes in appearance. Fruit setting is only possible when male and female specimens are grown together.

It turned out that this species, in addition to decorativeness, has other invaluable qualities - it is the most cold-resistant and unpretentious palm tree. A case was recorded when several specimens of Fortchun's trachikarpus were able to survive a cold snap to -27.5 ° C in Plovdiv (Bulgaria) during the harsh winter of 1993. It grows well in the open field on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, where it gives abundant self-seeding.

In indoor culture, trachycarpus are also unpretentious, but due to the large final size of this species, only young specimens are grown at home. The advantages of this type of palms include the absence of thorns on the leaf stalks.

Lighting... The trachikarpus can grow in all light conditions, from bright to semi-shaded, but prefers a bright location near south-facing windows. In a room in direct sunlight, the leaves will overheat in summer, so it is necessary to protect the plant from the scorching sun and ensure good ventilation of the room. In summer, it is recommended to take the palm tree out into the open air, gradually accustoming it to sunlight.

Temperature... In summer, the optimum temperature of the content is + 18 + 24 ° C, the trachycarpus does not tolerate heat well and stops growing at high temperatures. If the temperature is too high for trachycarpus, the tips of the leaves can turn brown. In winter, it is preferable to maintain cool conditions - like a subtropical plant, it is desirable for trachycarpus to rest at a temperature of + 6 + 12 o C. But if it is impossible to arrange a cool winter, this palm tree will also endure warm room conditions. You can not rush to remove trachycarpus from the street in the fall before the onset of freezing temperatures, but it is better to protect potted plants from frost.

Watering plentiful in summer, after the top layer of the soil dries up, avoiding stagnation of water in the soil and sump. In winter, watering is reduced according to the conditions of detention (the darker and cooler, the less abundant watering), but the earthen coma is not brought to complete drying. It is advisable to periodically arrange a warm shower for the plant, which will free the leaves from accumulated dust and prevent severe tick damage.

Air quality... The optimum air humidity is about 50-60%, it is especially important to ensure high humidity during the heat. But trachycarpuses tolerate the low air humidity of our apartments quite well. At any time of the year, the palm tree must be in a well-ventilated area, in warm weather - preferably outside.

Transplant and soil composition... Trachycarpus is unpretentious to the composition of the soil mixture, it is only important to make a well-drained mixture. You can use ready-made soil for palm trees with the addition of perlite and turf. The proportion of sod land should increase gradually as the palm grows. It is recommended to carry out transplants only by careful transshipment, without disturbing the root coma. Young specimens are transplanted every 1-2 years, older ones - every 3-5 years.

Top dressing... To fertilize trachycarpus, use complex fertilizers for palms with microelements. Feeding can only be carried out during the active growing season of the plant, from spring to autumn.

Reproduction possible only by seeds. Seeds germinate quickly and amicably, usually within 1-2 months. Bottom heating is optional. It is better to sow seeds in January-February so that the sprouted sprouts do not suffer from a lack of light. Seedlings and young plants develop quite quickly, 5 leaves can grow in a year. The division of the leaf blade into segments begins at about 5-7 leaves.

Pests... Trachikarpus is resistant to pests, but if care is not followed, from a lack of light and drying out of an earthen coma, a strong tick damage is possible. It is also affected by mealybugs and scale insects.


Trachikarpus

Trachikarpus (Trachycarpus) - a small genus in the Arecaceae family, consisting of 9 species of fan palms. In the wild, they live in Asia, in the subtropics of India, high in the Himalayas, Nepal, Burma, China, Thailand and Vietnam, where they often grow in hard-to-reach places. Several species have been discovered quite recently, and it is possible that the genus will soon be replenished with new representatives.

The name of the genus comes from Greek words trachy (rude) and carpus (fruit), with a likely reference to the appearance of the fruit.

These are single-barreled, relatively low palms. The leaves are fan-shaped, deeply dissected into many leaves, often with a waxy coating on the underside. The bases of the leaves form many fibers that cover the trunk. Leaf petioles without thorns or with barely visible thorns, not prickly. All species are dioecious, male and female flowers are formed in inflorescences on different plants.

This is a widely cultivated genus of palm trees, the main advantages of which are high winter hardiness, ease of care, rapid growth and beautiful appearance of plants. The most cold-hardy species - trachycarpus Fortune, is grown even in the north of Scotland and Alaska. However, other species are not as hardy, mainly palm trees of moderately cool climates, which do not tolerate tropical conditions.

Trachtikarpus Fortune (Trachycarpus fortunei) - the most famous and widely cultivated species. It is believed to be native to Central and Eastern China, but it has been so widely cultivated there for several thousand years that its exact place of origin is questionable.

This palm tree was introduced to Europe from Japan in 1830, but became widely known 20 years later, when its seeds were secretly sent from China from the Chusan Island (now Zhoushan) by Robert Fortune, whose name was given to this species. By the way, this plant is often called the Chusan palm. The first specimen was grown in Kew greenhouses because the species was considered tropical and its high winter hardiness remained unknown for a long time.

It is a single-stemmed palm tree up to 10-13 m tall. Stem 15-30 cm in diameter, often with a wider base, usually covered with a dense layer of remnants of old leaves. Only in very mature specimens the trunk in the lower part is freed from these coarse gray-brown fibers and becomes smooth. The leaves are dark green, palmate, rounded, with a grayish bloom on the lower surface, up to 1 m in diameter. Each leaf is divided approximately in the middle into 40-50 segments. Leaf petioles 60-100 cm long, not thorny. The crown is concentrated at the top of the trunk, rounded, up to 3 m in diameter. The species is dioecious, male and female yellow flowers are formed on different specimens in branched, up to 60-90 cm long, inflorescences. Fruits 1-1.5 cm, round, purple-black when ripe, covered with a waxy blue bloom.

The species is grown for its stem fibers, from which brushes, brooms, rugs are made.

Trachikarpus Fortune grows in places where the climate is cool and humid in summer and cold in winter, with frequent snowfalls. The winter hardiness of this species is legendary, there are cases when plants survived frosts of -20, and even -27 o C. Young specimens can endure cold snaps to -8, adult palms - up to -15 o C.

In hot weather, the plant stops growing and waits for the onset of a cold snap, when it starts to grow again. The main enemy of decorativeness is a strong wind, which tears and breaks leaves. For better growth, a palm tree needs rich soil, regular abundant watering and fertilizing, then the growth rate of its stem can be 30 cm per year. The only difficulty in leaving is the need to regularly cut the skirt from old leaves.

Trachikarpus Wagner(Trachycarpus wagnerianus) is now regarded as synonymous with Fortune's trachycarpus rather than as a separate species. This is a peculiar plant, with small rigid leaves less than 75 cm in diameter, the segments of which are trimmed with white woolly fibers. The leaves are so tough that they are not afraid of even strong winds.

Although there are suggestions that wild populations of this plant are still preserved somewhere in Japan, so far no one has been able to find them. This palm tree appeared in Italy in the early 1900s, when Mr. Winter bought all the seeds of this plant, brought from Japan by the German gardener Albert Wagner, after whom the species was named. At a young age, up to 3-4 years, a palm tree forms leaves that are not uniform in shape, but later it reaches all its beauty. The maximum size remains in the range of 3-6 m, and small and very tough leaves are formed throughout life. The plant is as resilient as trachycarpus Fortuna, which makes it highly popular.

Trachikarpus two-segment (Trachycarpus geminisectus) was discovered only in 2003 in hard-to-reach places in Vietnam.

The trunk is single, straight, 1–2 m high and about 25 cm in diameter, densely covered with coarse, fibrous, dark brown remnants of leaf sheaths. The broad crown consists of 10-12 leaves. The petiole is very strong, up to 90 cm long, triangular in cross section, with a wide yellow stripe on the underside, orange at the base. The leaves are round, about 130 cm wide, very leathery, dark, glossy, green above, with a whitish waxy bloom below, deeply and regularly divided into more than ¾ of the length into 40 linear segments, connected along the entire length in two, less often three together ( hence the specific epithet). The width of each segment is about 4 cm, double - 8 cm, triple - about 12 cm. Like all trachycarpuses, the species is dioecious. Male inflorescences are short, about 50 cm, yellow and fragrant. Women's - long, yellowish, also fragrant. Fruits are reniform, small, black with a waxy coating.

The species is easily distinguishable from other trachycarpus by its segmented leaves. Prefers to grow in full sun in well-drained substrates, resistant to cold snaps. Due to its high decorativeness and unpretentiousness, it seems to be very interesting and promising for growing. However, the lack of seed material has not yet allowed its widespread introduction into culture.

Trachikarpus wide-lobed (Trachycarpus latisectus) was found in India and described in 1997. Lives in the foothills of Sikkim. The species is on the verge of extinction in the wild, but is successfully cultivated, mainly in India. The name of the species comes from the wide leaf lobes, each of which is about 5 cm wide.

The trunk is single, slender and straight, up to 12 m high and 15 cm in diameter, and glabrous over a greater extent, covered with the remains of leaves only up to 2 m below the crown. There are up to 15-25 leaves in the crown. Leaves are rounded, up to 135 cm wide, as a rule, split into 65-70 lobes not as deep as in other trachycarpuses (no more than half the length), bright light green on top and with a whitish bloom on the underside. Male inflorescences up to 100 cm, female up to 150 cm long, yellowish. Fruits are yellowish brown, ellipsoid.

In cultivated plantings, the plant is unpretentious, promising for growing in regions with a subtropical and cool climate, although its frost resistance is not so high more than other species are resistant to tropical conditions. Seeds around the world are often distributed under the name Trachycarpus sikkimensis, pointing to the place of its natural growth.

Trachikarpus Martius (Trachycarpus martianus) grows mainly in two, separated by several hundred kilometers zones: one in the central part of northern Nepal, the other in the province of Meghalaya in northeastern India. For a while, these two populations were considered different species. Distinctive features of the species are considered to be bare trunks, leaves very regularly cut to about half into 65-80 segments, and seeds resembling coffee grains in shape.

The species is named after the German botanist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794-1868).

Trachycarpus martianus 'Kassia Hills', formerly known as Trachycarpus khasianus, is considered the most elegant palm in the genus. On the bare, slender, bare trunks, there is a wide-open crown of very regularly cut into a large number of leaf segments. The palm tree grows quite quickly, is easy to grow, well suited for subtropical and more temperate climates, where it will tolerate slight frosts.

Trachycarpus martianus 'Nepal', also known as Trachycarpus martianus 'Khasia Hills' is a population with less dissected and smaller leaves, native to the Himalayas in Nepal. More resistant to frost and drought, as its habitats are advanced to the more northern and higher mountainous regions.

Dwarf trachikarpus (Trachycarpus nanus) - a native of the Yunnan province in China. This is a truly dwarf type of palm, the underground part of the trunk can be up to 1.8 m long, but the above-ground part is either absent or does not exceed 30 cm. The height of a palm tree with a rosette of leaves is no more than 2.5 meters. The leaves are deeply dissected in about 30 lobes, green or with a blue tint. A distinctive feature of the species are erect inflorescences. This device in a dwarf species helps to raise flowers above ground level. However, in their natural habitat, grazing goats cause great damage to the spread of the palm tree, they willingly eat the still unopened, growing upward, inflorescences.

The species was first mentioned in 1887 by Père Jean Marie Delavay, but until 1992, when a special expedition was organized, it remained virtually unknown. Nowadays, some nurseries have taken up the cultivation of these interesting, highly frost-resistant dwarf plants from seeds obtained from China.

Cloud-loving trachikarpus (Trachycarpus oreophilus) originally from Thailand. The mountainous area where these palms grow is constantly covered with clouds and fog, hence the specific name of the plant. Strong winds are detrimental to the appearance, but in quieter places, the palm tree amazes with its elegant appearance. Single, even and slender stems rise to a height of about 9 m. The trunks are bare, brown, with noticeable rings, only young plants are dressed in a skirt of dead leaves. The trunk diameter is 10-16 cm. The crown consists of 20 leaves, wider than tall. The leaves are almost round, up to 100 cm wide, cut to about half by 60 lobes, leathery, green above, glaucous below.

High humidity in natural habitats makes it possible to grow these plants in humid subtropical and temperate gardens. While this species is not yet widespread in culture, it is gradually gaining popularity.

Trachikarpus royal (Trachycarpus princeps) grows on the Salween River, in China, on bare sheer marble rocks, called the Stone Gate, for which this plant is often called the Stone Gate palm.

The trunks are single, slender, 15-20 cm in diameter, allowing palms to reach 9 meters in height. The leaves of this species are almost round, evenly divided up to the middle of the leaf into many lobes, but not flat, like in other trachycarpuses, but have a cup-shaped shape. In addition, the underside of the leaves is covered with a thick waxy coating, which gives them a distinct bluish color. The trunk is covered with light brown fibers.

The species grows well in the hot sun, tolerates frosts down to -3 ° C, and has an average growth rate among trachycarpus.

Taquila trachikarpus (Trachycarpus takil) native to the cool and humid forests of the Himalayas in Kumaon, northern India, it grows at an altitude of 2400-2700 m above sea level, where winters can be very cold and snowy.

The species was discovered back in 1850 by the British military Madden, but the seeds of these palms were sent to various nurseries in the UK under the name Trachticarpus Martiana. And only later, in 1905, the Italian botanist Odoardo Beccari established that this is a separate species and named it Takil's trachikarpus, after the name of Mount Taquil in India, where this palm tree grows. Nowadays, almost all wild thickets of this plant have been cut down.

This palm tree resembles Fortchun's trachycarpus, but differs in a higher growth, up to 15 m, a less pubescent trunk (the trunk is rather bare and the bases of old leaves are not so wide), a more uniform segmentation of adult leaves, from which the appearance of the Taquil trachycarpus has a more well-groomed and neat look. There are also differences in the structure of the first true leaves after seed germination.

The species prefers well-drained soils, grows easily, but not very quickly, has high frost resistance, can withstand temperatures down to -15 o C.

Ukhrul trachikarpus (Trachycarpus ukhrulensis) as a new species was described quite recently, in 2006. But it is probably the same plant that Frank Kingdon Ward mentioned in 1952 under the name Trachycarpus sp. Manipur. Grows in small populations at high altitude on the Himalayan arch near Burma's border with Manipur and Nagaland in India, commonly known as Saramati palm, a name given to the eastern part of North India in Ukhrul district (hence the botanical name). The climatic conditions in the habitats are very harsh, there is little precipitation in summer, and it becomes cold in winter, the altitude is about 4000-6000 m. The soils are poor, hard, sandy and limestone, infertile.

The palm tree can reach a height of 9-15 m. The trunk is straight, even, up to 30 cm in diameter, on old parts it can be bare or have a tortoiseshell pattern formed by the remains of dense bases of old leaves. The top of the trunk is wrapped in coarse, interwoven fibers. The crown is about 2.5 m in diameter and can hold up to 28 leaves. The leaves are divided into 64-70 segments, dark green on top and a strong mealy white bloom on the underside. The leaf petioles are covered with small harmless thorns. Ripe fruits are yellow, but later become black-brown.

Trachikarpus, with the exception of Trachikarpus Fortune, which is widely cultivated as a cultivated plant, grow in small, endangered populations. These are very promising plants for breeding, interest in them is only growing, and there is hope that, at least in a cultural form, these small species will be preserved.


Watch the video: Duży Trachycarpus fortunei, odkrywanie.


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